How to use this directory

Press the “+” icon next to a server’s name to expand the record. Use the search bar to find terms anywhere in the record. Click on the eye icon to select the columns you want to display.

For further details about how the data were gathered, refer to the original paper and source data. Provisional results were presented in January at the #bioPreprints2020 meeting.

Raw data are periodically archived on Zenodo.

If you represent a preprint server and would like to add or update a record in this directory, please contact

Screen recording of expanding a preprint server record in the preprint server directory
Screen recording of expanding a preprint server record in the preprint server directory

Preprint server directory

* Information has not yet been verified by a server representative.

2022-08-12 update: We have added additional life-science relevant preprint servers with 50 or more preprints.

2021-11-23 update: NeuroImage Clinical First Look & Surgery Open Science First Look were removed as many other First Look journals are now represented on SSRN.

Additional background

Given the growth of preprint servers and alternative platforms, it is increasingly important to describe their disciplinary scope and compare and contrast policies including governance, licensing, archiving strategies and the nature of any screening checks. These practices are important to both researchers and policymakers.

Here we present a list of preprint servers relevant to life sciences, biomedical, and clinical research with searchable information about their policies and practices. This list was originally collected for a study, but many records have been subsequently updated. See the last item in the expanded record (instructions below) for each server to find the date of the most recent update.

Note that we include platforms such as F1000 Research because they post papers prior to peer review. Nevertheless, they differ from preprint servers in that authors commit to publishing the peer-reviewed version with the platform, rather than being free to submit their paper for publication elsewhere.

Acknowledgements: Jamie Kirkham, Fiona Murphy and Naomi Penfold completed the research. Thanks to all preprint platform representatives who provided and verified information collected, and all who helped test and inform the survey and directory development, including Robert Kiley, Geraldine Clement-Stoneham, Michael Parkin, Isabelle Boutron, John PA Ioannidis, John Inglis, Amy Riegelman, and Claire Yang. This research project builds on Martyn Rittman’s open spreadsheet of preprint servers.

Please cite as: A systematic examination of preprint platforms for use in the medical and biomedical sciences setting. Jamie J Kirkham, Naomi Penfold, Fiona Murphy, Isabelle Boutron, John PA Ioannidis, Jessica K Polka, David Moher. bioRxiv 2020.04.27.063578; doi: